Below is the current errata list for this textbook. These errata will be corrected in the next edition


14.11.2020   The PDF in this link replaces the section on TTF's with it replacement the TAF3




          Amended the Takeoff Chart on page 23 as the CASA Chart had errors, this is the new one Takeoff Chart.pdf


         Amended pages for the new fuel requirements         New_Fuel_Calc.pdf



Page 174      AIP GEN 2.2 Definitions Page 4 Is Now Page 5

Page 175      AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now and Is Now 

Page 178      AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now and  Is Now 

Page 179      AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now and Is Now 

Page 180 Question 5  AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now and Is Now

Page 183 Question 23  AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now 

Page 318    AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now and  7.1.3 Is Now 10.1.3 and 

                    AIP ENR 1.1 para 7.8.1 Is Now 10.8.1 and Is Now

Page 321    AIP ENR 1.1 para 7.9.6 Is Now 10.9.6 and  7.2.3 Is Now 10.2.3

Page 322    AIP ENR 1.1 para 7.9.6 Is Now  10.9.6 

Page 324    AIP ENR 1.1 para a & b Is Now a & b 

                    AIP ENR 1.1 para c,d,e,f  Is Now c,d,e,f

                    AIP ENR 1.1 para c  Is Now c 

Page 325    AIP ENR 1.1 para e  Is Now e

                    AIP ENR 1.1 para  Is Now

Page 328    AIP ENR 1.1 para 8.12 Is Now  11.11

                   AIP ENR 1.1 para 11.8.1 Is Now  11.7.1

                   AIP ENR 1.1 para 11.8.3 Is Now  11.7.3

Page 330  Question 5    AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now

                  Question 6   AIP ENR 1.1 para b  Is Now b

Page 331 Question 9    AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now

                 Question 15  AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now

Page 332  Question 21  AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now

Page 350    AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now  6.1.1

Page 351    AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now  6.1.1

                   AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now  6.1.1

                   AIP ENR 1.1 para 7.1.4 Is Now  10.1.4 

                   AIP ENR 1.1 para 8.2.2 Is Now  11.2.2

Page 352   AIP ENR 1.1 para 8.6.1 Is Now  11.14.1

                   AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now

Page 360 Question 1   AIP ENR 1.1 para 2.13.4 Is Now  2.12.4

                 Question 2  AIP ENR 1.1 para 12.8.6 (a) 2 Is Now (a) 2

                 Question 4  AIP ENR 1.1 para (i) Is Now (a)

Page 361 Question 8  AIP ENR 1.1 para 8.2.2 Is Now  11.2.2

Page 363 Question 8  AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now

Page 364 Question 17  AIP ENR 1.1 para 7.10.1 Is Now  10.10.1

                 Question 22  AIP ENR 1.1 para 8.16.1 Is Now  11.14.1

Page 365 Question 24  AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now

                 Question 26  AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now

                 Question 30  AIP ENR 1.1 para 8.16.1 Is Now  11.14.1

Page 366 Question 32  AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now

                 Question 33  AIP ENR 1.1 para Is Now

Page 400 Question 4   AIP ENR 1.1 para 5.5.1 Is Now

Page 403 Question 32  AIP ENR 1.1 para 3.16.1 Is Now  11.14.1




        The updated pages to include the Graphical Area Forcasts and the Grid Point Wind and

        Temperature Forcasts  GAF_Update_PPL.pdf


Since Air Services have made yet another change without notice to the references in the AIP, some of the references in this book will need to be amended.  The changes affect mostly Chapter 3 on flight planning and in particular the conditions that impose the requirement for planning an alternate.

For example a reference to AIP ENR 1.1 para now becomes AIP ENR 1.1 para  Note that the first 8 becomes 11.  Nothing else changes and there is no change to the actual text of the document.  Wherever a reference says AIP ENR 1.1 para 8.8 followed by further digits indicating sub paragraphs, the change required is to the first 8.  So the reference AIP ENR 1.1 para 8.8 becomes AIP ENR 1.1 para 11.8 followed by the same digits indicating sub paragraphs.

The changes will be included in the next print of the book.


Page 339.  Avoiding controlled airspace.  The AIP reference is now AIP ENR 1.1  para 4.1.12


Important note concerning the latest AIP (2nd March 2017).  AIP References


Page 166 Diagram Fig 2.108.  The text in the diagram should read "0330 to 0830" not "0430 to 0830".


The Bureau of Meteorology has advised that as of November 2016, Area Forecasts will apply from the surface to 10,000 feet AMSL, not 20.000 feet AMSL as was the case previously.


Page 402.  The answer to Question 72 should be (b) 9500 feet freezing level.


Page 229 Figure 3.44.  The track in the right hand box should have been 323 not 232.


Page 172 Question No 14.  'Cowra NSW' has been changed to 'Bairnsdale VIC'.


Page 114.  The link to the first diagram on the top of the page is incorrect.  The cold front should be further west over the Great Australian Bight.

Page 402.  The answer to Question No 125 should have been [a] South Westerly.


Loading system Bravo in the CASA exam booklet.  If you check out the example on page 11, there is no mention of 'cargo' anywhere. There is also no mention of 'cargo' in the description of the aircraft - only 'baggage'. However on the weight to moment  index graph on page 12, there are two lines, one for 'cargo' and one for 'baggage'. I have only just noticed that after all these years!! I don't know why the 'cargo' reference line is there. There is no extra compartment on the aircraft where you can put 'cargo'. That's a mystery to me.

I usually tell my classes not to use the weight to moment index graph anyway. It is much easier to simply multiply the weight in each location by the arm given in the example table on page 11. In any case, if a question asks for the MINIMUM weight that must be added or removed, you would have to use the baggage compartment because it is the most rearward compartment.  So any weight removed from there would have the greatest effect on the CofG movement.


Page 402 Answers to Questions.  Answer to Question No 72 has been changed to [b].


Page 229, Fig 3.44, diagram on the right hand side.  The box at the top of the track in the diagram should read "Track 323°M" not "Track 232°M".


Page 4.37 [Page 339 new page numbering].  Avoiding Controlled Airspace.  The distances that were specified in the old AIP have been dropped.  The AIP [March 5th 2015] says that you must not actually enter CTA unless you have a clearance and, if your route takes you close to the boundary of CTA, you should either get a clearance or stay well clear of the boundary.


Page 4.4.  References to CAR 5 are no longer valid. 
CAR 5.77.1 becomes CASR 61.515
CAR 5.79[1] becomes CASR 61.375
CAR 5.01[2] becomes CASR 61.380
CAR 5.04 becomes CASR 67.265
CAR 5.81 becomes CASR 61.400
CAR 5.82] becomes CASR 61.395


Page 4.51.  The answer to Question 11 is now 'clear of cloud and 1600m visibility. 


Page 6.2.19.  Definition of AIRMET.  18,500 is now 20,000

Page 6.2.27.  Question 19 answer 9(b) is now 20,000 not 18,500


Page 2.5.12: bottom of the page after 'CLEAR ICE', delete reference to altocumulus.

Page 2.6.3: First paragraph third last line should read 'With the exception of TCU and CB, cloud types are not mentioned in reports or forecasts.' 

Page 2.6.3:  Reference AIP GEN 3.5 para 14 is now AIP GEN 3.5 para 13. 

Page 2.6.21:  TAF at the bottom of the page, the times should be TEMPO 3005/3012


Page 4.27 Question No 1.Choice [d] has been changed to 'Class E'.  Answers to this exercise are now on Page 4.28.


All references to RASH (Rain Showers) in the Operational Meteorology and Quiz sections should be changed to read SHRA. This reflects the latest decode for showers of rain in the AIP.


Part 4 page 32.  The comment on 'Visual Approach' gives the impression that you must maintain both height and track until within 5 nm of the aerodrome.  If you are give a Visual Approach by the controller, you may descend as necessary at your own discretion, but you must maintain you last track until you are withing 5 nm of the aerodrome.


Update page 2.6.2: A correction has been made to the definition of VRB used when describing wind in meteorological messages. VRB is used when one specific wind direction cannot be determined i.e. winds less than 3kt or stronger winds with varying direction (e.g. VRB30KT) such as would be expected with the passage of a thunderstorm.

The description of visibility reporting has also been changed to reflect the latest updates of the AIP. If the minimum visibility is less than 5000m and less than the prevailing visibility, it will be reported as prevailing visibility followed by minimum visibility and directional information e.g. 6000 2000SE.


There are two answer options labelled (c) for Q59 in the PPL Practice Exam on page 6.8. The should be labelled as follows:

(a) 4000ft
(b) 6000ft
(c) 5200ft
(d) 6200ft


Weight and Balance Drill Exercises Q15 pg 1.3.15: The answer is 93kg of baggage and not 96kg. The original answer is based on calculating the weight of fuel using a specific gravity (SG) constant of 0.71. ERSA GEN-CON-2 actually specifies the AVGAS SG to be 0.72 and this is the value you will be expected to use in the exam. The increase in SG of 0.1 makes the fuel load 3kg heavier which means there is 3kg less weight available for baggage. 


It has come to our attention that some recent copies of the PPL textbook have a missing page. If you have recently purchased a PPL textbook, please check if you are missing page 3.5.8. Affected books unfortunately have page 3.5.9 included twice instead. If your copy is affected, here is a PDF of the missing page which you can print out if you wish:

PPL VFR [DAY] Study Guide:  Page 3.5.8


The November 2011 AIP update has returned the calculation of TAF QNH and temperatures to a much simpler presentation. Now instead of TAF values for QNH and Temperature applying 90 minutes either side of HH, HH+3, HH+6, HH+9, you can simply linearly interpolate between the four spot values as required. (See AIP GEN 3.5 12.16.2 and 12.17.3). This change affects the description of TAF interpretation on pages 2.6.14 - 2.6.15.

Consider the following TAF:

TAF YBMK 071931Z 0720/0808 11013KT 9999 FEW012 SCT025 
FM0802 11008KT 9999 SCT020 
TEMPO 0802/0808 SCT009 BKN012
RMK T 26 23 23 22 Q 1013 1015 1016 1015

At 2000 the QNH and temperature are forecast to be 1013 and +26°C respectively. At 2300 the QNH and temperature are forecast to be 1015 and +23°C respectively. At 0200 the QNH and temperature are forecast to be 1016 and +23°C respectively. At 0500 the QNH and temperature are forecast to be 1015 and +22°C respectively.

For arrivals at other times, you should interpolate between the given values.  In most cases this will be a simple task because the values rarely change by more than one or two units. To get the QNH or temperature during the last three hour period, you would need to obtain the next TAF and interpolate as necessary between the 05 on the current TAF values and the 08 values on the new TAF.


E-Text: Page 327 (Textbook: p.3.3.7): missing line added "[about 123kt]" immediately above Fig. 3.7


PPL (10.06.2010) Updates with airspace changes from 3rd June 2010. (1.69 Mb)


PPL Air Law Questions References Updates (27.01.2011) (PDF 495 kb)


WAC Chart for the E-Text version of the book

          Arimidale WAC for the E-Text version of the book Armidale.pdf



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